FNDC4 (rec.) (untagged)
|Synonyms||Fibronectin Type III Domain-containing Protein 4; Fibronectin Type III Repeat-containing Protein 1|
FNDC4 (extracellular domain, human (aa 45-167) / mouse (aa 41-163)) is untagged. FNDC4 extracellular domain has 100% identity between human, mouse, rat, dog and monkey.
|Endotoxin Content||<0.01EU/μg purified protein (LAL test; Lonza).|
for 10µg size: 0.1mg/ml
for 50µg size: 1 mg/ml
10µg size: Reconstitute with 100µl sterile water.
50µg size: Reconstitute with 50µl sterile water.
|Formulation||Lyophilized. Contains PBS.|
|Other Product Data||
Uni-Prot link Q9H6D8: FNDC4
|Shipping and Handling|
|Short Term Storage||+4°C|
|Long Term Storage||-20°C|
After reconstitution, prepare aliquots and store at -20°C.
Avoid freeze/thaw cycles.
Centrifuge lyophilized vial before opening and reconstitution.
PBS containing at least 0.1% BSA should be used for further dilutions.
Stable for at least 6 months after receipt when stored at -20°C.
Working aliquots are stable for up to 3 months when stored at -20°C.
|Product Specification Sheet|
Irisin is a recently described exercise-induced hormone secreted by skeletal muscle in mice and humans. Irisin activates beige fat cells (beige cells have a gene expression pattern distinct from either white or brown fat and are preferentially sensitive to the polypeptide hormone irisin). Irisin is cleaved from the type I membrane protein FNDC5 and improves systemic metabolism by increasing energy expenditure. FNDC4 is an ortholog of FNDC5 with 50% identity and 86% similarity compared to Irisin. FNDC4 as well as FNDC5 are extremely well conserved between species. The human FNDC4 gene is highly enriched in liver, brain tissue and adipocytes. FNDC4 is a factor with direct therapeutic potential in inflammatory bowel disease and possibly other inflammatory diseases.
Recently, a new role of FNDC4 as a hepatokine has been published. Liver primarily controls the circulating levels of FNDC4 showing tight correlation with insulin sensitivity. In addition, a new orphan adhesion G protein-coupled receptor 116 (GPR116) has been identified as a receptor of FNDC4 in white adipose tissue (WAT), thereby establishing an endocrine FNDC4-GPR116 axis in the control of systemic glucose homeostasis. Moreover, the FNDC4-GPR116 axis is impaired in diabetic patients and therapeutic injections of recombinant Fc-FNDC4 into pre-diabetic mice corrected pre-diabetic hyperglycemia.
- FNDC4, a novel adipokine that reduces lipogenesis and promotes fat browning in human visceral adipocytes: G. Fruehbeck, et al.; Metabolism 108, 154261 (2020)
- Orphan GPR116 mediates the insulin sensitizing effects of the hepatokine FNDC4 in adipose tissue: A. Georgiadi, et al.; Nature Commun. 12, 2999 (2021)