60 CHF CHF 60.00
AG-CN2-0487-M01010 mgCHF 60.00
AG-CN2-0487-M05050 mgCHF 200.00
|Synonyms||(+)-Shikonin; (R)-Shikonin; Tokyo Violet; NSC 252844; Isoarnebin 4; C.I. 75535; (R)-5,8-Dihydroxy-2-(1-hydroxy-4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)naphthalene-1,4-dione|
|Source/Host Chemicals||Isolated from Alkanna sp.|
|Purity Chemicals||≥98% (HPLC)|
|Appearance||Purple red solid.|
|Solubility||Soluble in DMSO or DMF. Sparingly soluble in ethanol, methanol or water.|
|Identity||Determined by 1H-NMR.|
|Shipping and Handling|
|Short Term Storage||+4°C|
|Long Term Storage||-20°C|
Keep cool and dry.
Protect from light.
|Use/Stability||Stable for at least 2 years after receipt when stored at -20°C.|
|Product Specification Sheet|
- Anticancer compound. Inhibits TNF-α-induced and B-16 melanoma-induced angiogenesis.
- Induces apoptosis and RIP1- and RIP3-dependent necroptosis in several cancer cells. Circumvents cancer antidrug resistance through the necroptosis pathway.
- Proteasome inhibitor. Autophagy inducer.
- Topoisomerase I inhibitor.
- Inhibits glycolysis in cancer cells by inhibiting tumor-specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2).
- Anti-inflammatory compound. Inhibits leukocyte migration, downregulates chemokine receptor expression, and inhibits HIV-1 replication.
- Inhibits the activation of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome. Shown to directly target caspase-1 and as a inhibitor of PKM2 to block PKM2-mediated glycolysis that promotes inflammasome activation by modulating EIF2AK2 phosphorylation in macrophages.
- Antioxidant. Free radical scavenger.
- Directly inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS).
- Regulator of systemic glucose tolerance, energy balance and adiposity/obesity. Adipogenesis inhibitor. Shown to inhibit fat accumulation in adipocytes.
- Antibacterial and antifungal agent.
- Shown to potentially inhibit the 33.8-kDa Main Protease (Mpro)/3C-like Protease of SARS-CoV-2, consequently inhibiting viral transcription and replication and possibly inhibiting spread of COVID-19.
- Antitumor activity of shikonin and its derivatives: U. Sankawa, et al.; Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 25, 2392 (1977)
- A comparative study on anti-inflammatory activities of the enantiomers, shikonin and alkannin: S. Tanaka, et al.; J. Nat. Prod. 49, 466 (1986)
- Shikonin, an ingredient of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, inhibits angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro: T. Hisa, et al.; Anticancer Res. 18, 783 (1998)
- Shikonin, a component of antiinflammatory Chinese herbal medicine, selectively blocks chemokine binding to CC chemokine receptor-1: X. Chen, et al.; Int. Immunopharmacol. 1, 229 (2001)
- Shikonin, a component of chinese herbal medicine, inhibits chemokine receptor function and suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1: X. Chen, et al.; Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47, 2810 (2003)
- Induction of apoptosis by shikonin through a ROS/JNK-mediated process in Bcr/Abl-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells: X. Mao, et al.; Cell Res. 18, 879 (2008)
- Dual role of shikonin in early and late stages of collagen type II arthritis: Q. Dai, et al.; Mol. Biol. Rep. 36, 1597 (2009)
- Shikonin exerts antitumor activity via proteasome inhibition and cell death induction in vitro and in vivo: H. Yang, et al.; Int. J. Cancer 124, 2450 (2009)
- Shikonin inhibits fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: H. Lee, et al.; Phytother. Res. 24, 344 (2010)
- Shikonin directly inhibits nitric oxide synthases: possible targets that affect thoracic aorta relaxation response and nitric oxide release from RAW 264.7 macrophages: L.S. Yoshida, et al.; J. Pharmacol. Sci. 112, 343 (2010)
- Shikonin inhibits adipogenesis by modulation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway: H. Lee, et al.; Life Sci. 88, 294 (2011)
- Shikonin and its analogs inhibit cancer cell glycolysis by targeting tumor pyruvate kinase-M2: J. Chen, et al.; Oncogene 30, 4297 (2011)
- Shikonin directly targets mitochondria and causes mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells: B. Wiench, et al.; Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2012, 726025 (2012)
- Inhibitory effect of Shikonin on Candida albicans growth: H. Miao, et al.; Biol. Pharm. Bull. 35, 1956 (2012)
- Topoisomerase I inhibitors, shikonin and topotecan, inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of glioma cells and glioma stem cells: F.L. Zhang, et al.; PLoS One 8, e81815 (2013)
- The anti-tumor effect of shikonin on osteosarcoma by inducing RIP1 and RIP3 dependent necroptosis: Z. Fu, et al.; BMC Cancer 13, 580 (2013)
- Evaluation of radical scavenging properties of shikonin: L.S. Yoshida, et al.; J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 55, 90 (2014)
- Shikonin promotes autophagy in BXPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cells through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway: S. Shi & H. Cao; Oncol. Lett. 8, 1087 (2014)
- The Mechanism Underlying the Antibacterial Activity of Shikonin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Y.S. Lee, et al.; Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2015, 520578 (2015)
- Decreased adiposity and enhanced glucose tolerance in shikonin treated mice: A. Bettaieb, et al.; Obesity 23, 2269 (2015)
- Shikonin Suppresses NLRP3 and AIM2 Inflammasomes by Direct Inhibition of Caspase-1: J. Zorman, et al.; PLoS One 11, e0159826 (2016)
- PKM2-dependent glycolysis promotes NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation: M. Xie, et al.; Nat. Commun. 7, 13280 (2016)
- Monoclonal anti-dsDNA antibody 2C10 escorts DNA to intracellular DNA sensors in normal mononuclear cells and stimulates secretion of multiple cytokines implicated in lupus pathogenesis: K. Inoue, et al.; Clin. Exper. Immunol. 199, 150 (2019)
- Structure of Mpro from COVID-19 virus and discovery of its inhibitors: Z. Jin, et al.; Nature (Epub ahead of print) (2020)