AdipoGen Life Sciences

Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA]

CHF 40.00
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AG-CN2-0010-M0011 mgCHF 40.00
AG-CN2-0010-M0055 mgCHF 135.00
AG-CN2-0010-M01010 mgCHF 195.00
AG-CN2-0010-M02525 mgCHF 390.00

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Product Details
Synonyms PMA; TPA; 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate
Product Type Chemical


MW 616.8
Merck Index 14: 7332
CAS 16561-29-8
RTECS QH4377000
Source/Host Chemicals Semisynthetic.
Purity Chemicals ≥98% (HPLC)
Appearance White to off-white solid.
Solubility Soluble in DMSO (20mg/ml), 100% ethanol (20mg/ml), methanol, acetone, ether or dimethylformamide; almost insoluble in aqueous buffers.
Identity Determined by 1H-NMR
Other Product Data

Stock solutions are stable for up to 3 months at -20°C.

Smiles [H][C@]12[C@]3([H])C=C(CO)C[C@]4(O)C(=O)C(C)=C[C@@]4([H])[C@@]3(O)[C@H](C)[C@@H](OC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCCCC)[C@@]1(OC(C)=O)C2(C)C
Shipping and Handling
Shipping AMBIENT
Short Term Storage +4°C
Long Term Storage -20°C
Handling Advice Protect from light.
Use/Stability Stable for at least 2 years after receipt when stored at -20°C.
MSDS Download PDF
Product Specification Sheet
Datasheet Download PDF
  • PMA/TPA is the most commonly-used phorbol ester.
  • Binds to and activates protein kinase C (PKC) at nM concentrations. 
  • Induces cell growth arrest through a variety of pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways mediated by cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors such as p21WAF1/CIP1, p27KIP1, p15 and p16.
  • Potent mouse skin tumor promoter.
  • Promoter of inducible NOS (iNOS; NOS II).
  • Apoptosis inducer.
  • Potential effective cancer therapeutic agent.
  • Inhibitor of anti-lipolytic activity of insulin.
  • PMA treatment stimulates THP-1 cells and generates M0 macrophages (M0).
Product References
  1. In vitro studies on the mode of action of the phorbol esters, potent tumor promoters: part 1: P.M. Blumberg; Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 8, 153 (1980) 
  2. In vitro studies on the mode of action of the phorbol esters, potent tumor promoters: part 2: P.M. Blumberg; Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 8, 199 (1981)
  3. Skin tumor promotion by phorbol esters is a two-stage process: G. Fürstenberger, et al.; PNAS 78, 7722 (1981)
  4. Phorbol esters as signal transducers and tumor promoters: M. Castagna; Biol. Cell 59, 3 (1987), Review
  5. Phorbol esters induce nitric oxide synthase activity in rat hepatocytes. Antagonism with the induction elicited by lipopolysaccharide: S. Hortelano, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 267, 24937 (1992) 
  6. Phorbol ester induces apoptosis in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells but not in HL-60 PET mutant: D.E. Macfarlane & P.S. O'Donnel; Leukemia 7, 1846 (1993) 
  7. Effect of intravenous infusions of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate (TPA) in patients with myelocytic leukemia: Preliminary studies on therapeutic efficacy and toxicity: T.H. Zheng, et al.; PNAS 95, 5357 (1998)
  8. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced increase in depressed white blood cell counts in patients treated with cytotoxic cancer chemotherapeutic drugs: T.H. Zheng, et al.; PNAS 95, 5362 (1998)
  9. Characterization of phorbol esters activity on individual mammalian protein kinase C isoforms, using the yeast phenotypic assay: L. Saraiva, et al.; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 491, 101 (2004)
  10. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate inhibits the antilipolytic action of insulin, probably via the activity of protein kinase Cε: J. Nakamura; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 648, 188 (2010)
  11. Characterization of polarized THP-1 macrophages and polarizing ability of LPS and food compounds: W. Chanput, et al.; Food Funct. 4, 266 (2013)
  12. M1 and M2 macrophages derived from THP-1 cells differentially modulate the response of cancer cells to etoposide: M. Genin, et al.; BMC Cancer 15, 577 (2015)
  13. The choice of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate differentiation protocol influences the response of THP-1 macrophages to a pro-inflammatory stimulus: M.E. Lund, et al.; J. Immunol. Methods 430, 64 (2016)
  14. Vitamin D3 inhibits the proliferation of T helper cells, downregulate CD4+ T cell cytokines and upregulate inhibitory markers: V. Sheikh, et al. Human Immunol. 79, 439 (2018)
  15. Adults from Kisumu, Kenya have robust γδ T cell responses to Schistosoma mansoni, which are modulated by tuberculosis: T.A. McLaughlin, et al.; PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 14, e0008764 (2020)
  16. Standardized protocols for differentiation of THP-1 cells to macrophages with distinct M(IFNγ+LPS), M(IL-4) and M(IL-10) phenotypes: E.W. Baxter, et al.; J. Immunol. Methods 478, 112721 (2020)
  17. Paeoniflorin reduces the inflammatory response of THP-1 cells by up‐regulating microRNA-124: D. Huang, et al.; Genes & Genomics 43, 623 (2021)
  18. Lymphatic dysfunction exacerbates cutaneous tumorigenesis and psoriasis-like skin inflammation through accumulation of inflammatory cytokines: H. Boki, et al.; J. Invest. Dermatol. 142, 1692 (2022) 
  19. IL-17A and IFN-γ are Up-regulated in CD4 and γδ T Cells in Active Behcet's Disease Patients: V. Abbasova, et al.; Immunol. Lett. 242, 37 (2021)
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