Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate [PMA]
40 CHF CHF 40.00
AG-CN2-0010-M0011 mgCHF 40.00
AG-CN2-0010-M0055 mgCHF 135.00
AG-CN2-0010-M01010 mgCHF 195.00
AG-CN2-0010-M02525 mgCHF 390.00
|Synonyms||PMA; TPA; 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate|
|Merck Index||14: 7332|
|Purity Chemicals||≥98% (HPLC)|
|Appearance||White to off-white solid.|
|Solubility||Soluble in DMSO (20mg/ml), 100% ethanol (20mg/ml), methanol, acetone, ether or dimethylformamide; almost insoluble in aqueous buffers.|
|Identity||Determined by 1H-NMR|
|Other Product Data||
Stock solutions are stable for up to 3 months at -20°C.
|Shipping and Handling|
|Short Term Storage||+4°C|
|Long Term Storage||-20°C|
|Handling Advice||Protect from light.|
|Use/Stability||Stable for at least 2 years after receipt when stored at -20°C.|
|Product Specification Sheet|
- PMA/TPA is the most commonly-used phorbol ester.
- Binds to and activates protein kinase C (PKC) at nM concentrations.
- Induces cell growth arrest through a variety of pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways mediated by cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors such as p21WAF1/CIP1, p27KIP1, p15 and p16.
- Potent mouse skin tumor promoter.
- Promoter of inducible NOS (iNOS; NOS II).
- Apoptosis inducer.
- Potential effective cancer therapeutic agent.
- Inhibitor of anti-lipolytic activity of insulin.
- PMA treatment stimulates THP-1 cells and generates M0 macrophages (M0).
- In vitro studies on the mode of action of the phorbol esters, potent tumor promoters: part 1: P.M. Blumberg; Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 8, 153 (1980)
- In vitro studies on the mode of action of the phorbol esters, potent tumor promoters: part 2: P.M. Blumberg; Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 8, 199 (1981)
- Skin tumor promotion by phorbol esters is a two-stage process: G. Fürstenberger, et al.; PNAS 78, 7722 (1981)
- Phorbol esters as signal transducers and tumor promoters: M. Castagna; Biol. Cell 59, 3 (1987), Review
- Phorbol esters induce nitric oxide synthase activity in rat hepatocytes. Antagonism with the induction elicited by lipopolysaccharide: S. Hortelano, et al.; J. Biol. Chem. 267, 24937 (1992)
- Phorbol ester induces apoptosis in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells but not in HL-60 PET mutant: D.E. Macfarlane & P.S. O'Donnel; Leukemia 7, 1846 (1993)
- Effect of intravenous infusions of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate (TPA) in patients with myelocytic leukemia: Preliminary studies on therapeutic efficacy and toxicity: T.H. Zheng, et al.; PNAS 95, 5357 (1998)
- 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced increase in depressed white blood cell counts in patients treated with cytotoxic cancer chemotherapeutic drugs: T.H. Zheng, et al.; PNAS 95, 5362 (1998)
- Characterization of phorbol esters activity on individual mammalian protein kinase C isoforms, using the yeast phenotypic assay: L. Saraiva, et al.; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 491, 101 (2004)
- Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate inhibits the antilipolytic action of insulin, probably via the activity of protein kinase Cε: J. Nakamura; Eur. J. Pharmacol. 648, 188 (2010)
- Characterization of polarized THP-1 macrophages and polarizing ability of LPS and food compounds: W. Chanput, et al.; Food Funct. 4, 266 (2013)
- M1 and M2 macrophages derived from THP-1 cells differentially modulate the response of cancer cells to etoposide: M. Genin, et al.; BMC Cancer 15, 577 (2015)
- The choice of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate differentiation protocol influences the response of THP-1 macrophages to a pro-inflammatory stimulus: M.E. Lund, et al.; J. Immunol. Methods 430, 64 (2016)
- Vitamin D3 inhibits the proliferation of T helper cells, downregulate CD4+ T cell cytokines and upregulate inhibitory markers: V. Sheikh, et al. Human Immunol. 79, 439 (2018)
- Adults from Kisumu, Kenya have robust γδ T cell responses to Schistosoma mansoni, which are modulated by tuberculosis: T.A. McLaughlin, et al.; PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 14, e0008764 (2020)
- Standardized protocols for differentiation of THP-1 cells to macrophages with distinct M(IFNγ+LPS), M(IL-4) and M(IL-10) phenotypes: E.W. Baxter, et al.; J. Immunol. Methods 478, 112721 (2020)
- Paeoniflorin reduces the inflammatory response of THP-1 cells by up‐regulating microRNA-124: D. Huang, et al.; Genes & Genomics 43, 623 (2021)
- Lymphatic dysfunction exacerbates cutaneous tumorigenesis and psoriasis-like skin inflammation through accumulation of inflammatory cytokines: H. Boki, et al.; J. Invest. Dermatol. 142, 1692 (2022)
- IL-17A and IFN-γ are Up-regulated in CD4 and γδ T Cells in Active Behcet's Disease Patients: V. Abbasova, et al.; Immunol. Lett. 242, 37 (2021)